Sorry, Cooking For Engineers has reorganized. This page isn't going to display quite right anymore... You will be redirected immediately or click here to be forwarded immediately.

Wednesday, June 09, 2004

Ingredient Substitutions

Unless you have a fully stocked kitchen, you're probably going to have to make a run to the supermarket at least once for any new recipe you try. At least I have to. Sometimes, I just don't feel like it, or I'm not willing to spend money on an ingredient that I might never use again. Will something in the pantry or spice rack work just as well? Maybe. The only way to know is to try it and see - but what should I try? Well, here I've compiled a list of possible substitutions from the web, cooking shows, cookbooks, and conventional wisdom.

Allspice (1 tsp.)Ground cinnamon (1/2 tsp.) & ground cloves (1/2 tsp.)
Apple Pie Spice (1 tsp.)Ground cinnamon (1/2 tsp.) & ground nutmeg (1/4 tsp.) & ground cardamom (1/8 teaspoon)
Arrowroot (1&Tbs.)Corn starch (2-1/4 tsp.)
Baking Powder (1 tsp.)Baking soda (1/4 tsp.) & cream of tartar (5/8 tsp.)
Baking Powder (1 tsp.)Baking soda (1/4 tsp.) & buttermilk (1/2 cup)Reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup.
Baking Powder (1 tsp.)Baking soda (1/4 tsp.) & molasses (3/8 cup)Reduce liquid in recipe by 1/4 cup. Adjust sweetener also.
Bread crumbs, dry (1 cup)Cracker crumbs(3/4 cup)
Broth, chicken or beef (1 cup)Bouillon (1 cube or 1 tsp. granules) & boiling water (1 cup)
Butter (1 oz.)Margarine (1 oz.)Margarine must contain more than 80% fat. Margarine should have 100 calories per tablespoon. Recent scientific evidence shows that trans fatty acids are extremely bad for your health. Trans fatty acids are created by mechnical hydrogenation of liquid oils - which is how they make margarine. Keep the butter around.
Butter (1 oz.)Vegetable shortening (1 oz.)For baking. Recent scientific evidence shows that trans fatty acids are extremely bad for your health. Trans fatty acids are created by mechnical hydrogenation of liquid oils - which is how they make vegetable shortening. However, one company does produce a trans fatty acid free shortening from palm oil.
Butter (1 oz.)Oil (1 oz.)For melted butter, oil can be substituded.
Buttermilk (1 cup)Lemon juice or vinegar (1 Tbs.) & milk (enough to make 1 cup)Allow to stand for five minutes.
Buttermilk (1 cup)Plain yogurt (1 cup)
Buttermilk (1 cup)Cream of tartar (1-3/4 tsp.) & milk (1 cup)
Chili Sauce (1 cup)Tomato sauce (1 cup), brown sugar (1/4 cup), vinegar (2 Tbs.), ground cinnamon (1/4 tsp.), ground cloves (a dash), & allspice (a dash)
Chives (1 Tbs.)Tips of scallions (1 Tbs.)
Chocolate, semisweet (1 oz.)Unsweetened chocolate (1/2 oz.) & granulated sugar (1 Tbs.)
Chocolate, semisweet chips (6 oz.)Unsweetened cocoa powder (1/2 cup plus 1 Tbs.), granulated suger (1/4 cup plus 3 Tbs.), & melted butter (3 Tbs.)
Chocolate, unsweetened, melted (1 oz.)Unsweetened cocoa powder (3 Tbs.) & melted butter (1 Tbs.)
Coconut, grated (1 cup)Coconut, flaked (1-1/3 cups)
Coconut milk, fresh (1 cup)Canned cream of coconut (3 Tbs.) plus hot water or milk (enough to make 1 cup)
Cornstarch (1 Tbs.)Flour (2 Tbs.)For thickening. Note: Cornstarch thickened liquids are translucent while flour thickened liquids are opaque. Also, flour needs to be cooked longer and should be simmered after thickening to avoid flour taste.
Corn syrup, dark (1 cup)Light corn syrup (3/4 cup) & light molasses (1/4 cup)
Corn syrup (1 cup)Granulated or packed brown sugar (1-1/4 cups) & water (1/4 cup)Water can be replaced with any liquid in recipe. Do not reduce liquid used in recipe.
Cream, whipping (1 cup unwhipped)Prewhipped whipping cream or whipped cream substitute (2 cups)
Egg (1 large)Egg substitute (1/4 cup)Follow directions on package
Egg (1 large)Reconstituded powdered eggsFollow directions on package
Egg (1 large)Mayonnaise (2 Tbs.)For use in cake batter
Egg (1 large)Baking powder (1/2 tsp.), vinegar (1 Tbs.), & water (1 .Tbs)For use as a rising agent in baking. Water can be replaced with any liquid, such as apple juice.
Egg white (1 large)Frozen egg white (2 Tbs.)
Egg white (1 large)Powdered egg white (1 Tbs.) & water (2 Tbs.)
Egg yolk (1 large)Frozen yolk (3-1/2 tsp.)
Egg yolk (1 large)Powdered yolk (2 Tbs.) & water (2 tsp.)For baking.
Egg yolk (2 large)Egg, whole (1 large)For thickening sauces
Flour, All-Purpose sifted (1 cup)All-purpose flour unsifted (1 cup minus 2 Tbs.)Too much whole wheat flour may result in too dense of a product.
Flour, All-Purpose (1 cup)Whole wheat flour (1/2 cup) & all-purpose flour (1/2 cup)Too much whole wheat flour may result in too dense of a product.
Flour, Cake sifted (1 cup)All-purpose flour sifted (1 cup minus 2 Tbs.)
Flour, Self-rising (1 cup)All-purpose flour (1 cup minus 2 tsp.), baking powder (1-1/2 tsp.), & salt (1/2 tsp.)
Flour (2 Tbs.)Corn starch (1 Tbs.)For thickening
Flour (2 Tbs.)Arrowroot (4 tsp.)For thickening
Flour (2 Tbs.)Quick-cooking tapioca(2 Tbs.)For thickening
Garlic (1 clove)Garlic powder (1/8 tsp.)
Garlic (1 clove)Instant minced garlic(1/8 tsp.)
Garlic (1 clove)Garlic salt(1/4 tsp.)Reduce salt in recipe by 1/8 tsp.
Half-and-half (1 ccup)Light cream (1/2 cup) & whole milk (1/2 cup)
Half-and-half (1 ccup)Butter (1-1/2 Tbs.) & whole milk (enough to make 1 cup)
Herbs, fresh (1 Tbs., minced)Ground dried herbs (1/2 tsp.)
Herbs, fresh (1 Tbs., minced)Unground dried herbs (1 tsp.)
Honey (1 cup)Granulated sugar (1-1/4 cup) & water (1/4 cup)Water can be replaced with any liquid in recipe. Do not reduce liquid used in recipe.
Lemon Juice (1 tsp.)Vinegar (1/2 tsp.)
Lemon Zest (1 tsp.)Lemon extract (1/2 tsp.)
Marshmallows, mini (1 cup)Ten large marshmallows
Mayonnaise (1 cup)Sour cream (1 cup)For use in salad dressings.
Mayonnaise (1 cup)Yogurt (1 cup)For use in salad dressings.
Mayonnaise (1 cup)Cottage cheese, pureed (1 cup)For use in salad dressings.
Mustard, dry (1 tsp.)Prepared mustard (1&Tbs.)For when the mustard will be used in cooking.
Onion, chopped (1 small or 1/4 cup)Instant minced onion (1 Tbs.)May need to be reconstituted before adding to dry foods. Usually can be added directly to wet or moist foods.
Pasta, cooked, semolina (4 cups)Pasta, uncooked semolina (8 oz.) or Pasta, uncooked egg (14 oz.) This conversion is for spaghetti, angel hair, linquine, fettuccine, bow ties, rotini, penne, radiatore, mostaccioli, macaroni, shells, twists, spirals, wagon wheels, and vermicelli.
Pasta, cooked egg noodles(2-1/2 cups)Pasta, uncooked egg noodles (8 oz.)
Pumpkin Pie Spice (1 tsp.)Ground cinnamon (1/2 tsp.), ground ginger (1/4 tsp.), ground allspice (1/8 tsp.), & ground nutmeg (1/8&tsp.)
Rum (1 part)Rum extract (1 part) & water (3 parts)
Sour cream (1 cup)Plain yogurt (1 cup)
Sour cream (1 cup)Buttermilk(3/4 cup) & butter (1/3 cup)
Sour cream (1 cup)Lemon juice (1 Tbs.) & evaporated whole milk (enough to make 1 cup)
Sugar, confectioner's (1 cup)Fine sugar (1 cup) & cornstarch (1 Tbs.)Fine sugar can be produced by running granulated suger in a food processor with a metal blade until powdery.
Sugar, light brown (1 cup)Dark brown sugar (1/2 cup) & granulated sugar (1/2 cup)
Sugar, granulated (1 cup)Light brown sugar, packed (1 cup)
Sugar, granulated (1 cup)Confectioner's sugar (1-3/4 cups)
Tomato juice (1 cup)Tomato sauce (1/2 cup) & water (1/2 cup)
Tomato sauce (1 cup)Tomato paste (3/8 cup) & water (1/2 cup)
Tomato soup (10-3/4 can)Tomato sauce (1 cup) & water (1/4 cup)
Vinegar (1 tsp.)Lemon juice (2 tsp.)
Wine, Red (1  cup)Grape or cranberry juice (1 cup)
Wine, white (1 cup)Apple or white grape juice (1 cup)
Yeast, compressed (3/5 oz.)Active dry yeast (1/4 oz.)From package
Yeast, compressed (3/5 oz.)Loose active dry yeast (2-1/2 tsp.)
Yogurt (1 cup)Buttermilk (1 cup)
Yogurt (1 cup)Milk (1 cup) & lemon juice (1 Tbs.)

posted by Michael Chu @ 6/09/2004 02:30:07 PM   8 comments
Toggle Printer Friendly   Toggle commentsPost a Comment  


At 9:49 PM, Eric said...

If you substitute AP flour for Cake, be prepared for your cake to be tough. There is quite a bit more gluten in AP than Cake (or Soft) flour and substituting one for the other has can ruin a delicate recipe.

At 9:28 AM, Anonymous said...

Thank you, for a very nice list. It's great to have this at hand!

At 3:38 PM, David said...

Just like to point out that you cannot "mechanically hydrogenate" vegetable oil to make margarine. This is a chemical process using a heterogeneous catalyst and hydrogen. In fact, you initially get cis-hydrogenation, but this is followed by isomerisation to the trans- compound because this is thermodynamically favoured.

At 11:59 AM, Jeff Dougan said...

To substitute AP flour for cake flour: Take 1 cup - 2 Tbsp of AP flour and sift with 2 Tbsp cornstarch. Works like a charm.

(Pastry flour has even less protein, but I've never seen a substitution published.)

At 10:50 AM, rehana said... has the most complete listing of substitutions I've seen. I haven't tried many, so I don't know how well they work.

At 9:02 PM, Anonymous said...

I'm Getting Ready To Try Making Home Made Cream Soda
And Have More Corn Syrup Than Sugar In The House I Know The Beverige Companys Use It So I Thought I'd Look For The Convertion Of Corn Syrup To Sugar
I'm Gonna Try Your Figuar Of 1 Cup Corn Syrup To Create 1 1/4 Cups Sugar

At 4:24 PM, Heather said...

Any Canadians out there might wish to note that AP flour up here contains more gluten than American AP flour and cake flour is often not necessary if using Canadian.

At 1:49 PM, Anonymous said...

In response to heather who posted at 4:24 PM:

See Kitchen Notes: Wheat Flour with its explanation of how more gluten results in a tougher, not more tender, baking product.

So cake flour is even more, not less, necessary for Canadians. It is bread flour that one can often make do without.


Post a Comment

<< Home